Persuasión y Personalidad. El receptor en la comunicación persuasiva.

Iván Sánchez-Muñoz, María Luisa Calcerrada Alcazar, Jose Luis González Álvarez, Manuel De Juan Espinosa

Resumen


La persuasión se viene estudiando desde la psicología social. Este enfoque, si bien efectivo, puede resultar generalista para diversas situaciones interindividuales como las ventas, negociación e interrogatorios, o los tratamientos clínicos. Por ello también cabría enfocar el estudio de la persuasión desde el enfoque de las diferencias individuales. ¿Habrá técnicas de persuasión   más efectivas con unos sujetos que con otros? Partiendo del receptor como centro del proceso persuasivo, se presenta una revisión de los estudios que se han ocupado de la influencia de los rasgos de personalidad del receptor en el cambio de actitudes. Se encuentra que destacan la tendencia a la extroversión, neuroticismo, empatía y baja necesidad de cognición como vulnerabilidades a persuasión por la vía periférica. Sus contrapartes resultan más resistentes a persuasión, siendo necesario el empleo de la vía central. Finalmente, en base a estudios sobre la vulnerabilidad a las estrategias de persuasión de Cialdini, se proponen hipótesis de relación entre estas vulnerabilidades y los rasgos de personalidad más estudiados con respecto a la persuasión.


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Albarracín, D., Johnson, B. T., & Zanna, M. P. (2014). The handbook of attitudes. Londres: Psychology Press.

Alkış, N., & Temizel, T. T. (2015). The impact of individual differences on influence strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 147-152. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.07.037

Aluja, A., García, O., & García, L. F. (2002). A comparative study of Zuckerman's three structural models for personality through the NEO-PI-R, ZKPQ-III-R, EPQ-RS and Goldberg's 50-bipolar adjectives. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(5), 713-725. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00186-6

Berzonsky, M. D. (1989). Identity style: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of adolescent research, 4(3), 268-282. doi: 10.1177/074355488943002

Berzonsky, M. D., & Sullivan, C. (1992). Social-cognitive aspects of identity style: Need for cognition, experiential openness, and introspection. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 140-155. doi: 10.1177/074355489272002

Briñol, P., Becerra, A., Díaz, D., Valle, C., Horcajo, J., & Gallardo, I. (2005). El efecto de la necesidad de cognición sobre la influencia interpersonal. Psicothema, 17(4).

Briñol, P., De la Corte, L., & Becerra, A. (2001). Qué es persuasión. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva.

Briñol, P., & Petty, R. E. (2005). Individual Differences in Attitude Change. En D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, M. P. Zanna. The handbook of attitudes (pp. 575-615). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(1), 116-131. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.42.1.116

Cai, Y., Pan, L., & He, J. (2014). Self or other: Compatibility between emotion and message referent. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 42(9), 1575-1584. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2014.42.9.1575

Carment, D. W., Miles, C. G., & Cervin, V. B. (1965). Persuasiveness and persuasibility as related to intelligence and extraversion. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 4(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8260.1965.tb00433.x

Cattell, R. B., & P. Cattell, H. E. (1995). Personality structure and the new fifth edition of the 16PF. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(6), 926-937. doi: 10.1177/0013164495055006002

Chen, S. H., & Lee, K. P. (2008). The role of personality traits and perceived values in persuasion: An elaboration likelihood model perspective on online shopping. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 36(10), 1379-1399. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2008.36.10.1379

Cialdini, R. B. (1987). Influence. The psychology of persuasión. Nueva York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc.

Cloninger, S. (2003). Teorías de la personalidad. México: Prentice Hall México.

de Vries, R. A., Truong, K. P., Zaga, C., Li, J., & Evers, V. (2017). A word of advice: how to tailor motivational text messages based on behavior change theory to personality and gender. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s00779-017-1025-1

DeBono, K. G., & McDermott, J. B. (1994). Trait anxiety and persuasion: Individual differences in information processing strategies. Journal of Research in Personality, 28(3), 395-407. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1994.1028

Eaves, L., & Eysenck, H. (1975). The nature of extraversion: A genetical analysis. Journal of personality and social psychology, 32(1), 102. doi: 10.1037/h0076862

De Juan, M., & García, L. F. (2004). Nuestra personalidad. En qué y por qué somos diferentes. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva.

Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences: The three major dimensions of personality. Journal of personality, 58(1), 245-261. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1990.tb00915.x

Eysenck, H. J., & Bordas, M. D. (1970). Fundamentos biológicos de la personalidad. Barcelona: Fontanella.

Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. (1967). On the unitary nature of extraversion. Acta Psychologica, 26, 383-390. doi: 10.1016/0001-6918(67)90034-0

Eysenck, S. B., & Eysenck, H. J. (1970). Crime and personality an empirical study of the three-factor theory. The British Journal of Criminology, 10(3), 225-239.

Falces, C., Briñol, P., Sierra, B., Becerra, A., & Alier, E. (2001). Validación de la escala de necesidad de cognición y su aplicación al estudio del cambio de actitudes. Psicothema, 13(4).

Germeijs, V., & Verschueren, K. (2011). Indecisiveness and Big Five personality factors: Relationship and specificity. Personality And Individual Differences, 50(7), 1023-1028. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.01.017

Glenn, A. L., & Raine, A. (2014). Psychopathy: An introduction to biological findings and their implications. Nueva York: NYU Press.

Greenwald, A. G. (1968). Cognitive learning, cognitive response to persuasion, and attitude change. Psychological foundations of attitudes, 147-170.

Gutierrez, J., Bajen, M. J., Sintas, F., & Amat, M. (1993). Evaluación de la tendencia al esfuerzo cognitivo. Anuario de psicología/The UB Journal of psychology, (58), 53-68.

Hagemann, D., Hewig, J., Walter, C., Schankin, A., Danner, D., &

Naumann, E. (2009). Positive evidence for Eysenck’s arousal hypothesis: A combined EEG and MRI study with multiple measurement occasions. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(7), 717-721. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.009

Halko, S., & Kientz, J. A. (2010, June). Personality and persuasive technology: an exploratory study on health-promoting mobile applications. In International conference on persuasive technology (pp. 150-161). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Haugtvedt, C. P., & Petty, R. E. (1992). Personality and persuasion: Need for cognition moderates the persistence and resistance of attitude changes. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 63(2), 308-319. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.63.2.308

Hepler, J., & Albarracin, D. (2013). Attitudes without objects: Evidence for a dispositional attitude, its measurement, and its consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(6), 1060. doi: 10.1037/a0032282

Higbee, K. L. (1969). Fifteen years of fear arousal: research on threat appeals: 1953-1968. Psychological Bulletin, 72(6), 426-444. doi: 10.1037/h0028430

Hirsh, J. B., Kang, S. K., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2012). Personalized persuasion: tailoring persuasive appeals to recipients' personality traits. Psychological Science, 23(6), 578-581. doi: 10.1177/0956797611436349

Hodson, G., & Sorrentino, R. M. (1999). Uncertainty orientation and the Big Five personality structure. Journal of Research in Personality, 33(2), 253-261. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.1999.2244

Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., & Kelley, H. H. (1953). Communication and persuasion; psychological studies of opinion change. Yale University Press.

Hovland, C. I., Lumsdaine, A. A., & Sheffield, F. D. (1949). Experiments on mass communication. (Studies in social psychology in World War II). Princeton University Press.

Igartua, J. J. (1998). La técnica del listado de pensamientos como método de investigación en comunicación publicitaria The thought-listing technique as a research method in advertising. Comunicación y Cultura, 2(1), 43-62. doi: 10.1174/113839598322011860

Igartua, J. J. (2010). Identification with characters and narrative persuasion through fictional feature films. The European Journal of Communication Research. doi: 10.1515/comm.2010.019

Janis, I. L. (1954). Personality correlates of susceptibility to persuasion. Journal Of Personality, 22(4), 504-518. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1954.tb01870.x

Kaptein, M. (2012). Personalized persuasion in ambient intelligence. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, 4(3), 279-280.

Kaptein, M. (2015). Persuasion profiling: how the internet knows what makes you tick. Amsterdam: Business Contact.

Kaptein, M., & Eckles, D. (2012). Heterogeneity in the effects of online persuasion. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(3), 176-188.

Kaptein, M., Markopoulos, P., de Ruyter, B., & Aarts, E. (2009). Can you be persuaded? individual differences in susceptibility to persuasion. Human-computer interaction-INTERACT, 115-118.

Komeda, H., Tsunemi, K., Inohara, K., Kusumi, T., & Rapp, D. N. (2013). Beyond disposition: the processing consequences of explicit and implicit invocations of empathy. Acta Psychologica, 142(3), 349-355. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.01.002

Leventhal, H., & Trembly, G. (1968). Negative emotions and persuasion. Journal of Personality, 36(1), 154-168. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1968.tb01466.x

McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. T., & Piedmont, R. L. (1993). Folk Concepts, Natural Language, and Psychological Constructs: The California Psychological Inventory and the Five‐Factor Model. Journal of Personality, 61(1), 1-26. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1993.tb00276.x

McGuire, W. J. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. Handbook of social psychology, 2.

Millman, S. (1968). Anxiety, comprehension, and susceptibility to social influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(3), 251. doi: 10.1037/h0021252

Moreno, B. (2007). Psicología de la personalidad: Procesos. Madrid: Ediciones Paraninfo.

Moya-Albiol, L., Herrero, N., & Bernal, M. C. (2010). Bases neuronales de la empatía. Rev Neurol, 50(2), 89-100.

Oreg, S., & Sverdlik, N. (2014). Source personality and persuasiveness: Big Five predispositions to being persuasive and the role of message involvement. Journal Of Personality, 82(3), 250-264. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12049

Oyibo, K., Orji, R., & Vassileva, J. (2017). Investigation of the Influence of Personality Traits on Cialdini’s Persuasive Strategies. In International Workshop on Personalizing in Persuasive Technologies.

Páez, D., Fernández, I., Ubillos, S., & Zubieta, E. (2004). Psicología social, cultura y educación. Nueva Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Advances in experimental social psychology, 19, 123-205. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60214-2

Petty, R. E., & Morris, K. J. (1983). Effects of need for cognition on message evaluation, recall, and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 805-818. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.805

Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (1998). Attitude change: Multiple roles for persuasion variables. En D. Gilbert, S. Fiske, & G. Lindzey. The handbook of social psychology (pp. 323–390).

Petty, R. E., & Wegener, D. T. (1999). The elaboration likelihood model: Current status and controversies. En S. Chaiken & Trope. Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 37-72). New York: Guilford Press

Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Goldman, R. (1981). Personal involvement as a determinant of argument-based persuasion. Journal of personality and social psychology, 41(5), 847. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.41.5.847

Robinson, K. F. (1941). An experimental study of the effects of group discussion upon the social attitudes of college students. Communications Monographs, 8(1), 34-57.

Sălceanu, C. (2014). Personality factors and resistance to the manipulation of advertising. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 127, 5-9. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.202

Shakarchi, R. J., & Haugtvedt, C. P. (2004). Differentiating Individual Differences in Resistance to Persuasion. En E. S. Knowles, J. A. Linn, E. S. Knowles, J. A. Linn. Resistance and persuasion (pp. 105-113). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Smith, K. A., Dennis, M. y Masthoff, J. (2016). Personalizing reminders to personality for melanoma self-checking. En Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on User Modeling Adaptation and Personalization (pp. 85-93). ACM.

Sofia, G., Marianna, S., George, L., & Panos, K. (2016, August). Investigating the role of personality traits and influence strategies on the persuasive effect of personalized recommendations. In 4th Workshop on Emotions and Personality in Personalized Systems (EMPIRE) (p. 9).

Shen, L. (2011). The effectiveness of empathy-versus fear-arousing antismoking PSAs. Health communication, 26(5), 404-415. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2011.552480

Sorrentino, R. M., Bobocel, D. R., Gitta, M. Z., Olson, J. M., & Hewitt, E. C. (1988). Uncertainty orientation and persuasion: Individual differences in the effects of personal relevance on social judgments. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 55(3), 357. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.55.3.357

Thomas, R. J., Masthoff, J. y Oren, N. (2017). Adapting healthy eating messages to personality. En International Conference on Persuasive Technology (pp. 119-132). Springer, Cham.

Vázquez, A. y Gómez, A. (2018). Psicología Social. Madrid: Sanz y Torres.

Zellner, M. (1970). Self-esteem, reception, and influenceability. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 15(1), 87-93. doi: 10.1037/h0029201